Animal and Plant Physiology (BI2153)


Biochemistry (BI-2223)

Cell Biology (BI-1113)

Recommended Book(s)

Campbell Biology, Books A La Carte Edition (9th Edition) Loose Leaf – CLV, 2012 By Jane B. Reece (Author), Lisa A. Urry (Author)

Reference Book(s)


1. Ihsan, I. 1995. Plant Physiology, Biochemical Processes In Plants, UGC Press

2. Witham And Devlin.  1986 Exercises In Plant Physiology,  AWS  Publishers, Boston.

3. Taiz, L. And Zeiger, E. 2006. Plant Physiology. 4th  Ed. Sinauers Publ. Co. Inc.Calif.

4. Salisbury F. B. And Ross C. B. 1992. Plant Physiology. 5th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing Co. Belmont CA.

5. Hopkins, W. B. 1999. Introduction To Plant Physiology. 2nd Ed. John Wiley And Sons

6. Guyton, A. C. And J. E. Hall. (2006). Textbook Of Medical Physiology. 11th  Ed. WB Saunders Company, USA.

7. Barreet,  K.  E.,  S.  M.  Barman,  S.  Boitano,  H.  L.  Brooks (2006).  Ganong‟s Review Of Medical Physiology. 23rd Ed. Appleton & Lange, USA


Course Objectives

To provide comprehensive knowledge of functioning of organs, organelles To enable the students to assess the effects of various environmental factors on plant growth and development Study of normal Physiology/Physiological functions in Human/Plant/Animal at the level of cells, tissues, organs, systems and body as whole Application of the above knowledge in the understanding of disease process To provide fundamental knowledge of regulatory approach in Physiology To adopt multidisciplinary approach to equip the students for multidimensional carrier opportunities Encourage the student’s capacity for self learning by: Project, Research and Internship

Course Learning Outcomes (CLO)

A student after taking this course will be able to:

  • Understand the physiological functions of cells, tissues, organs, systems and body as a whole ,
  • Students are able to apply physiological knowledge with respect to the understanding of the diseases associated with various systems.
  • Student’s concepts will mature for the physiological phenomenon with the performance of experiments on animal models and human subject using non-invasive techniques.




Course Contents

a) Animal Physiology

  • Introduction  to  Physiology, 
  • Branches and its scope.
  • Cell:  Functional
  • Systems of a mammalian cell (general characteristics, cellular ingestions etc). 
  • Physiological functions of cellular  organelle, 
  • Cellular locomotion, cellular differentiation and apoptosis, 
  • Ions channels and transportation. 
  • Cardiovascular System:  Blood,  its  composition,
  • Blood cells genesis and differentiation..
  • Structure and synthesis of hemoglobin, its types,  and  iron  metabolism.

b) Plant Physiology

  • Water relations  (water  potential,  osmotic  potential, 
  • Pressure  potential,
  • Absorption and translocation of water.
  • Stomatal regulation
  • Mineral nutrition:  Soil as a  source  of  minerals.  Passive  and  active
  • Transport of nutrients.
  • Essential mineral elements, role and deficiency symptoms of macronutrients
  • Photosynthesis: Introduction, Oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthesis
  • Mechanism: light reactions (electron transport and photo phosphorylation) and dark reactions (Calvin cycle).
  • Differences between C3 and C4 plants
  • Factors affecting this process, Products of photosynthesis.
  • Respiration:  Definition and respiratory substrates.
  •  Chanism- Glycolysis
  • Krebs cycle. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Anaerobic Respiration.
  •  Energy  balance  in  aerobic  and  anaerobic  respiration,