Primary objective of the course is to provide sound knowledge of biomolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and vitamins etc. Important concepts include bioenergetics, basic biochemical principals (metabolism, catabolism, anabolism etc.) and metabolic pathways inside the interacted/ regulated systems. Course outline is aimed to make students understand basic chemical properties of molecules that make life possible and how these properties regulates macromolecular structures and functions. How structural proteins, enzymes and macromolecular complexes forms the basis of cellular machinery inside the body.
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)
CLO: 1. Define the principles and fundamental concepts of biochemistry and relate how molecules, pathways, and cells interact in a biological system.
CLO: 2. Identification and classification on the basis of structural elements of macromolecules carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, hormones and vitamins.
CLO: 3. Applications of biochemistry which are relevant to biomedical/pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacy and laboratory medicine.
- GENERAL INTRODUCTION AND BASIC BIOCHEMICAL PRINCIPLES:
- Role of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry in the health profession. Nature of biochemical reactions.
- Carbohydrates: Chemistry, Classification, Reactions of Carbohydrates, Optical activity, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of carbohydrates.
- Lipids: Chemistry of Fatty acids and Lipids, Classification (Saponifiable and non-saponifiable lipids, Simple, Complex and Derived lipids), Reactions of Fatty acids and other Lipids, Essential fatty acids, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of lipids.
- Proteins and Amino acids: Chemistry, Classification of proteins and amino acids, Reactions of proteins and amino acids, Organizational levels, Macromolecular nature of proteins, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of proteins and amino acids.
- Nucleic Acids: Chemistry, Types (DNA, RNA, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA), Purine and Pyrimidine bases, Nucelosides, Nucelotides, Structures of nucleic acids, Biological and pharmaceutical importance of nucleic acids.
- Vitamins: Chemistry, Classification (Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins), Biological and pharmaceutical importance of vitamins.
- Hormones: Chemistry, Classification (Proteinous and nonproteinous hormones, amino acid derivatives, steroids), Biological and pharmaceutical importance of hormones.
- Enzymes: Chemistry, Classification, Mode of action, Kinetics (Michaelis Menten Equation and some modifications), Inhibition, Activation, Specificity, Allosteric enzymes, Factors affecting the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, Biological and pharmaceutical importance, Mechanism of action of some important enzymes (Chymotrypsin, Ribonuclease).