Family Dynamics and Buying Decision for Meat: Development & Testing of Model for Pakistani Consumer Market.
The purpose of this study is to investigate determinants of meat buying behavior for family to
develop a model for Pakistan consumer market, using a conceptual framework of the theory of planned behavior and informed by theory of reasoned action, attachment theory and communal model. This empirical research is aimed at to verify the application of TPB in the case of buying for group like family. The study analyzed meat buying intention and sociodemographic characteristics as determinants of meat buying behavior to find the determinants of meat buying in Pakistan. The study also aimed at finding pro-meat and anti-meat intention as whole specifically and for various meats generally. The influence of attitude towards meat, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control on the meat buying intention was also explored. The study also aims at examining the mediation role of meat buying intention between psychographic variables (Attitude, Subjective norm and Perceived Behavioral Control) and meat buying behavior and also between socio-demographics and meat buying behavior in Pakistan. The moderation role of “collectivism” as a cultural identity of Pakistan was explored. Additionally mediation role of meat buying intention was examined.
A structured questionnaire was used to incite responses from spouses using a convenience sampling technique. Through a self-administered survey of 3600 families, a cross-sectional data was collected from the four provinces of Pakistan. A total of 2313 responses were received. Discarding incomplete questionnaires, total of 1786 questionnaires were used for analysis.
Analyses have shown that meat buying intention, gender, average monthly income, educational level and family structure are the important determinants of meat buying behavior in Pakistan. Whereas no significant impact of the generation, family size, number of children and sub-culture was found. Only average monthly income and educational level resulted into a positive impact on intention to buy meat. The impact of meat buying intention on meat buying behavior was greater as compared to socio-demographics.
The finding supported the basic TPB frame work for revealing that attitude towards meat, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control are the basic determinants of meat buying intention as hypothesized by the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Results recorded positive and greater importance of attitude towards meat followed by perceived behavioral control and subjective norm. Attitude and perceived behavioral control found to be positively related to beef, mutton, and chicken and fish buying intention but the subjective norm had no effect on the beef, mutton and chicken buying intention. However subjective norm was also positively related to fish buying intention. The framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) proved to be equally useful in predicting buying behavior of an individual for group like family.
The result suggested mediating role of meat buying intention in the impact of average monthly income and educational level on meat buying behavior. Results also revealed partial mediating role of meat buying intention in the influence of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control on meat buying behavior. Beef buying intention fully mediated the influence of attitude on beef buying behavior, but partially mediated impact of perceived behavioral control on beef buying behavior. Mutton buying intention partially mediated the impact of both attitude and perceived behavioral control on mutton buying behavior. Chicken buying intention played a full mediation role in the influence of chicken buying attitude and chicken buying behavior but partially mediated the impact of perceived behavioral control on chicken buying behavior. Fish buying intention partially mediated the impact of attitude towards fish and perceived behavioral control on fish buying behavior
The results for moderation suggested that collectivism significantly moderating only for relationship between subjective norm and meat buying intention. Collectivism failed to moderate relationship between attitude and meat buying intention. Similarly moderation of collectivism was not found for relationship between perceived behavioral control and meat buying intention.
Finally, the findings of this study supported and confirmed the importance of a comprehensive model to measure and relate the variable of importance to understand the intricacy of contributing factors in the area of food buying behavior by an individual for a group like family. Theoretical, Practical implications, limitations of this study and future direction of study are also discussed and explained.