Values-based Culture: Development of Multidimensional Measure and Multilevel Assessment of Theoretical Construct through Servant Leadership Theory
This study was designed to enhance the concept of the values-based group culture (VBC) through empirical application by developing a consistent and robust measure. This dissertation addresses the deficiencies from both the empirical and conceptual perspectives regarding what the VBC is. For this study, the VBC is defined as a culture of humane orientation. The VBC measure is created by identifying five dimensions, ideology infused, caring for employees, pro diversity, helping and having employee-centric organization identification. A series of survey items were developed, and tested them with 20 doctoral student raters for content validity. The remaining survey items were tested by exploratory factor analysis with a sample of 540 students, which results in a five-factor solution. Next, an organizational sample of 397 individuals and 106 groups were used to verify the five-factor model through group level confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A nomological net of VBC was developed through servant leadership theory in which five dimensions of VBC were taken as mediators between servant leader and meaningfulness at work. Two moderators (Leader ethical sensitivity and Leader spiritual wisdom) were also proposed. Cross level structural equation modeling was performed on MPLUS. The results confirm that the VBC is a multidimensional construct and makes a unique contribution to explaining individual level outcome. Two out of five dimensions proved suppressor mediators, other two proved confounder mediators and one could not mediate the proposed cross level relationship between servant leader and meaningfulness at work. Ethical sensitivity failed to moderate the cross-level relationship between servant leader and employees sense of meaningfulness at work. But the spiritual wisdom was found to be antagonistically moderating the cross-level relationship between servant leader and meaningfulness at work. The dissertation ends with the practical implications and proposes future research directions.