COURSE OBJECTIVES

1. To understand composition of various minerals, rock and their properties.
2. To develop a skills for application of geology to engineering problems.

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)

CLO:1 to describe different branches of geology, constituents of earth, formation of rocks, and structural features of strata. (C1)
CLO:2 to explain geological phenomena (weathering, erosion, volcanoes eruption, land sliding, and earthquakes), tunneling techniques, and geological survey maps.(C2)
CLO:3 to discuss and present geological engineering concepts. (A2)
CLO:4 to demonstrate geological phenomena (weathering, erosion, volcanoes eruption, land sliding, and earthquakes), tunneling techniques, and geological survey maps. (A2)

COURSE CONTENTS

  1. Introduction
    • Introduction to various branches of geology
    • Origin and internal constitution of the earth
  2. Rocks and Minerals, Structural Features
    • Main groups
    • Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
    • Important minerals and ores
    • Rock cycle
    • Glaciers and glaciations
    • Dip, strike, folds, faults, joints, unconformities conformable and unconformable series of strata
    • Effects of folding
    • Faulting and jointing on civil engineering projects and their recognition in the field
  3. Weathering and Erosion, Volcanoes
    • Agents of weathering and erosion
    • Weathering classification
    • Cycle of erosion, normal, glacial and marine erosion
    • Land forms
    • Mass wasting
    • Formation of meanders and ox-bow lakes
    • Formation of volcanoes
    • Causes of volcanoes
    • Nature and types of volcanic eruptions
    • Products of eruptions
    • Types of volcanoes
    • Geysers
  4. Landslides
    • Definition, causes of landslides
    • Classification of landslides
    • Preventive measures against landslides
  5. Earthquakes
    • Definition and related technical terms
    • Causes of earthquake
    • Classification of earthquakes
    • Earthquake or seismic waves
    • Mechanism of earthquake
    • Measuring of earthquake intensity (modified mercali intensity scale)
    • Effects of earthquake and protective measures against earthquake
  6. Tunneling
    • Engineering geology of tunnels
    • Geological survey prior to tunneling
    • Lining of tunnels and their section
    • Selection of tunnel site and its requirements
  7. Geological Survey Maps
    • Physical method of subsurface mapping
    • Exploratory geological surveys at engineering sites
  8. Engineering Applications
    • Importance of geology for civil engineering projects
    • Important building stones and other construction materials
    • Geology of aquifers, wells, springs, streams and ground water conditions, hydrologic cycle
    • Role of geology in selection of sites for dams, reservoirs and pertinent geological investigations
    • Geology of foundations, cutting tunnels, highways, airfields and bridges