Recommended Book(s)

1. A Primer Of Conservation Biology. 5th Ed. Sinauer, P.R.B. Associates Inc.Publ. Sunderland. 2012.

2. Conservation Biology: A Primer For South Asia. Bawa, K., Primack, S.,Oommen, R.B. And Anna, M., 2011., Orient Black Swan

3. Essentials Of Conservation Biology, 5th Ed.,Primack, R. B. Sinauer, P.R.Bassociates Inc. Publishers, Sunderland MA, USA. 2010.

4. Conservation Biology: Foundations, Concepts, Applications. 2Nd   Ed. Dyke,


The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity, threats to biodiversity and its conservation. To know about the National and international laws and agreements regarding top ecology


Biodiversity: Introduction and levels of biodiversity (Alpha, Beta and Gamma).
Biodiversity hotspots (tropical and coral reef   ecosystems)
Social and ethical values of biodiversity
Plants and animal resources of world and Pakistan
Conservation  of  biodiversity: Introduction  to  biological  conservation,  its  history,  guiding  principles  and characteristics.
Need and approach of biodiversity conservation and prevailing threats
IUCN threatened species categories.

Conservation at species and population level:
Applied population biology,
Establishing new populations, ex-situ conservation strategies
(Botanical gardens and arboreta, zoos, seed banks and aquaria)
Conservation at community and ecosystem level:
Protected areas, their categories and objectives
Considerations for reserve design

Conservation outside protected areas:
Conservation in man-made ecosystems,

Legal protection of species and habitats:
National and international laws and agreements for species and habitat protection,
National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan