Recommended Book(s)

1. Ecology (Concepts And Applications.) Moles,  M C J 6th Edition.WCB/McGraw-Hill. New York, 2012

2. Elements Of Ecology. Thomas   M. Smith And Robert L. Smith. 8th Ed. Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

3. Ecology. Michael L Cain, William   D. Bowman And Sally D. Hacker, 2nd Ed. Sinauer Associates, 2011

4. Fundamentals Of Ecology. Odum, E P. And Barett, G.W. 5th Ed

5. Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2004.


To develop an understanding about general ecology, its fundamental concepts, description of population, community, ecosystem and its types, biogeography and systems’ ecology.


  • Introduction and branches of ecology
  • Levels of ecological organization: species,
  • Population,
  • Community and ecosystem
  • A biotic and biotic factor
  • Concepts of limiting factors,
  • Habitat and niche
  • Populations:
  • Distribution and abundance,
  • Population dynamics and distribution limits.
  • Community organization and various concepts,
  • Community dynamics
  • Ecosystem: structure and function,
  • Energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem and carrying  capacity
  • Ecological production:  primary and secondary productivity,
  • Productivity of different ecosystems