1. Ecology (Concepts And Applications.) Moles, M C J 6th Edition.WCB/McGraw-Hill. New York, 2012
2. Elements Of Ecology. Thomas M. Smith And Robert L. Smith. 8th Ed. Benjamin Cummings, 2012.
3. Ecology. Michael L Cain, William D. Bowman And Sally D. Hacker, 2nd Ed. Sinauer Associates, 2011
4. Fundamentals Of Ecology. Odum, E P. And Barett, G.W. 5th Ed
5. Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2004.
To develop an understanding about general ecology, its fundamental concepts, description of population, community, ecosystem and its types, biogeography and systems’ ecology.
- Introduction and branches of ecology
- Levels of ecological organization: species,
- Community and ecosystem
- A biotic and biotic factor
- Concepts of limiting factors,
- Habitat and niche
- Distribution and abundance,
- Population dynamics and distribution limits.
- Community organization and various concepts,
- Community dynamics
- Ecosystem: structure and function,
- Energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem and carrying capacity
- Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity,
- Productivity of different ecosystems