1.To summarize the working principles in the microbiology laboratory and distinguish main microbiological apparatus, general staining and chemical identification tests of microorganisms.
2.To understand the use of culture media, inoculation techniques, and incubation of microorganisms.
3.To acquire knowledge about morphological observation techniques of microorganisms, normal flora of different areas of human body.


CLO: 1. Acquire knowledge of microbiology laboratory principles, apparatus, culture media and culturing techniques
CLO: 2. Explain the sterilization, incubation, and morphological observation techniques of microorganisms.
CLO: 3. Apply the chemical identification and general staining of microorganisms.


1. Principles of good microbiological practice (GMLP).
2. Study of different parts of the microscope and its use.
3. Introduction to Pharmaceutical Microbiology laboratory apparatus.
4. Introduction to culture media.
5. Preparation of culture media.
6. Study of the viable count of normal skin flora.
7. Study of techniques to obtain a pure culture.
8. Study of bacterial colony morphology.
9. Study of selected microorganisms by simple staining method.
10. Study of selected microorganisms by gram staining method.
11. Study of selected microorganisms by Ziehl-Neelsen’s (acid-fast staining) method.
12. Study of methods of preservation of microbial cultures.
13. Study of motility of microorganisms.
14. Study of catalase activity of given microorganisms.
15. Study of coagulase activity of given microorganisms.
16. Study of the ability of microorganisms to ferment sugar (lactose, sucrose) and their ability to produce H2S gas by triple sugar iron test.