This course provides advanced information on Pharmacognosy including: chemical constituents of therapeutic values with in natural sources, their identification, isolation and characterization. Sound knowledge regarding macromolecules like carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids and lipids. Course outline gives necessary information regarding natural resources containing potential macromolecules with therapeutic worth. These component from plants have applied and recognized alternative and complementary medicinal (CAM) uses as well as provides basis for pharmaceutical industry. Important medicinal plants, their potential components, medicinally important part of the plant, therapeutic uses and possible side effects are discussed.
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)
CLO: 1. Describe macromolecules and various techniques of their separation and characterization.
CLO: 2. Illustrate biological source of macromolecules, chemistry, classification, pharmacological uses and side effects
CLO: 3. Explain techniques to separate medicinal components from natural resource, their quality control and pharmacological uses.
- SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF PLANT CONSTITUENTS:
- Introduction and use of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques for the identification of natural products. Description and interpretation of ultraviolet, infrared, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) spectra and other advance techniques to elucidate the structure of natural products.
- Introduction and classification of carbohydrates, sugars as adjuvant in drugs, role of impurities in sugar substances.
- Sucrose and Sucrose containing drugs: Sucrose, Dextrose, Liquid glucose, Fructose, Lactose, Xylose, Caramel, Starch, Inulin, Dextrine etc.
- Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives: Powdered cellulose, Microcrystalline cellulose, Methyl cellulose, Sodium Carboxy-methyl cellulose.
- Gums and Mucilage: Tragacanth, Acacia, Sodium Alginate, Agar, Pectin.
- Introduction, Properties, Classification, Function of alkaloids in plants, Methods of extraction and identification tests.
- Pyridine-Piperidine Alkaloids: Areca nut, Lobelia.
- Tropane Alkaloids: Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium.
- Quinoline Alkaloids: Cinchona.
- Isoquinoline Alkaloids: Ipecacuanha, Opium.
- Indole alkaloids: Rauwolfia, Catharanthus, Nux vomica, Physostigma, Ergot.
- Imidazole alkaloids: Pilocarpus.
- Steroidal alkaloids: Veratrum.
- Alkaloidal amines: Ephedra, Colchicum.
- Purine Bases: Tea, Coffee.
- Introduction, classification, chemistry, extraction, isolation and medicinal uses of:
- Cardioactive glycosides: Digitalis, Strophanthus and White squill.
- Anthraquinone glycosides: Cascara, Aloe, Rhubarb, Cochineal & Senna.
- Saponin glycosides: Glycyrrhiza, Sarsaparilla.
- Cyanophore glycosides: Wild cherry.
- Isothiocyanate glycosides: Black mustard.
- Lactone glycosides: Cantharide.
- Aldehyde glycosides: Vanilla.
- Miscellaneous glycosides: Gentian, Quassia, Dioscorea.
- Introduction, extraction, isolation, nomenclature, sources and uses of bile acids, plant sterols, steroidal sapogenins, steroid hormones, withanolides and ecdysons.
- Introduction, classification, source, active constituents and pharmacological uses of:
- Fixed Oils: Castor oil, cotton seed oil, olive oil, peanut oil, sun flower oil, corn oil, coconut oil, almond oil, linseed oil, mustard oil, sesame oil and soybean oil.
- Fats and Related Compounds: Theobroma oil and Lanolin.
- _Bees wax, carnauba wax, spermaceti and Jojoba oil_