1. To understand pharmacology of drugs, their mechanisms of action, therapeutic uses, adverse effects and drug interaction.
2. To understand principles and importance of testing drugs for their effects on isolated and whole animal preparations.


CLO: 1. Understand the background, principle, and mechanism involved in the mediation of drug effects.
CLO: 2. Understand the principles of handling animals and relate the mechanism of action of drug effects by doing experiments on live animals and animals’ tissues.
CLO: 3. Gather, analyze, and interpret experimental data and compare the theoretical effects of the medications with lab experiments.


1. Demonstration of handling of laboratory animals.
2. Preparation of 1L Tyrode’s solution.
3. Preparation of 1L Kreb’s solution.
4. Study of different routes of drug administration in laboratory animals.
5. Study of assembly and working of kymograph, organ bath and power lab.
6. Study of anti GIT motility effect of loperamide in laboratory animals.
7. Demonstration of antidiarrheal effect of loperamide in laboratory animals.
8. Study of effect of pilocarpine on rabbit’s eye.
9. Study of effect of atropine on rabbit’s eye.
10. Study of effect of adrenaline on rabbit’s eye.
11. Determination of effect of local anesthetic on rabbit’s eye.
12. Study of effect of unknown drug on rabbit’s eye.
13. Demonstration of effects of acetylcholine on rabbit’s intestine
14. Demonstration of effects of atropine on rabbit’s intestine.
15. Study of effect of an unknown drug on rabbit’s intestine.