1. To understand basic background of knowledge about drugs working through autonomic nervous and mechanisms of action involved.
2. To understand how to handle laboratory animals in biomedical sciences.
3. To understand administeration of drugs in required doses during in-vivo and in-vitro situations.


CLO: 1. Understand background, principle and mechanism of action of drugs
CLO: 2. Conduct pharmacological experiments on animals or animal tissue to examine the effects of drugs and deal with different pharmacological instruments
CLO: 3. Interpret and analyze data obtained from experimental studies and compare the theoretical effects of the drugs with lab experiments.


1. Demonstration of handling of laboratory animals.
2. Preparation of 1L Ringer’s solution.
3. Introduction to autonomic nervous system.
4. Study of the autonomic control of heart.
5. Determination of effect of adrenaline on frog’s heart.
6. Determination of effect of atenolol on frog’s heart
7. Determination of effect of acetylcholine on frog’s heart
8. Determination of effect of unknown drug on frog’s heart
9. Construction of concentration-response curve of acetylcholine on intestinal smooth muscle of rabbit and determine unknown concentration of acetylcholine
10. Study of pharmacological antagonism of acetylcholine and atropine on intestinal smooth muscle of rabbit.
11. Study and comparison of serotonin and acetylcholine effect on intestinal smooth muscles of rabbit.
12. Determination of anticoagulant effect of heparin in vitro.
13. Determination of anticoagulant effect of heparin in vivo.
14. Determination of skeletal muscle relaxant effect of succinyl choline in chicks.