Pharmacology (an amalgam of the Greek pharmakos, medicine or drug, and logos, study is a broad discipline describing the use of chemicals to treat and cure disease. Pharmacology is concerned primarily with the characterization of the properties and modes of action of drugs and with the discovery of new drugs. The study and practice of pharmacology also includes drug toxicity, the way drugs are used and the processes by which drugs are absorbed, distributed in the body, metabolized and excreted. There are sub-disciplines within pharmacology representing specialty areas. Pharmacological knowledge and understanding improves the lives of millions of people across the world by providing vital answers at every stage of the discovery, testing and clinical use of new medicines. The ability to use medicines effectively, to maximise their benefit and minimise risk and harm, relies on this knowledge. Pharmacology is also crucial for discovering new medicines to help fight diseases such as cancer, depression, heart disease and infectious diseases.
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)
CLO: 1. To discuss classification with therapeutic uses of autacoids and their antagonists, Drugs acting on respiratory system, cardiovascular system genitourinary system, anti-anaemic drugs, hormones and their antagonists and other agents affecting endocrine functions.
CLO: 2. To explain pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action and adverse effects of autacoids and their antagonists, drugs acting on respiratory system, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, anti-anaemic drugs, hormones and their antagonists and other agents affecting endocrine function.
CLO: 3. To apply the knowledge of pharmacology to clinical practice in relation to the choice of therapeutic agent, route of drug administration and adverse effects.
- AUTACOIDS AND THEIR ANTAGONISTS:
- Histamine and anti-histamines, serotonin and serotonin antagonist, prostaglandins and their antagonists.
- Drugs used in cough (Anti-tussives, Expectorants and Mucolytic agents).
- Drugs used in Bronchial Asthma. Bronchodilators: Sympathomimetic, Xanthine derivatives, Leukotriene receptor antagonists and synthesis inhibitors, Muscarinic receptor antagonists, Cromoglycate, Nedocromil, Cortecosteroids & other Anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Angina pectoris and its drug treatment
- Congestive heart failure & its treatment.
- Anti-arrhythmic drugs
- Coagulants and Anti-coagulants
- Oxytocin, Ergot alkaloids and uterine relaxants.
- Endocrine function and dysfunctions. Drug used for therapy of Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemic agents, Corticosteroids, Thyroid hormone and anti-thyroid drugs.