Pharmacology (an amalgam of the Greek pharmakos, medicine or drug, and logos, study is a broad discipline describing the use of chemicals to treat and cure disease. Pharmacology is concerned primarily with the characterization of the properties and modes of action of drugs and with the discovery of new drugs. The study and practice of pharmacology also includes drug toxicity, the way drugs are used and the processes by which drugs are absorbed, distributed in the body, metabolized and excreted. There are sub-disciplines within pharmacology representing specialty areas. Pharmacological knowledge and understanding improves the lives of millions of people across the world by providing vital answers at every stage of the discovery, testing and clinical use of new medicines. The ability to use medicines effectively, to maximise their benefit and minimise risk and harm, relies on this knowledge. Pharmacology is also crucial for discovering new medicines to help fight diseases such as cancer, depression, heart disease and infectious diseases.
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)
CLO: 1. To discuss pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, mechanism of resistance and adverse effects of antibacterials, anti-fungals, anti-virals, anti-protozoals, anti-neoplastic drugs.
CLO: 2. To explain the pharmacology of immunomodulators in relation to their pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, therapeutic uses and adverse effects.
CLO: 3. To discuss poisoning in relation to various sources of poisoning, their poisoning mechanism, sign and symptoms and specific treatment.
CLO: 4. To apply the knowledge of pharmacology to clinical practice in relation to the choice of therapeutic agent, route of drug administration and adverse effects.
- Basic principles of chemotherapy
Antibacterials: (Folate antagonists; sulphonamides. Cell wall synthesis inhibitors; Penicillin, Cephalosporins, Carbapenam, Monobactam. Protein synthesis inhibitors; Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines, Chloramphenicol, Macrolides. Nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors; Quinolones and miscellaneous Antibiotics), Antimycobacterial drugs, Urinary tract antiseptics
- Anti-protozoals: (anti-malarias, anti-amebiasis, anthelmintics and anti- leishmanials)
- Anti-neoplastic drugs
- Pharmacology of immuno-suppressants and stimulants.
- Pollution and its types (water, air, food)
- Poison and principle of treatment of poisoning
- Poisoning (Sign & symptom and treatment): Ethanol, Barbiturates, Digitalis, Salicylates, Strychnine, Narcotics, Nicotine, Paracetamol, Benzodiazepines and organophosphorous compounds.
- Chelating agents and their role in poisoning: Dimercaprol, Calcium disodium edentate (Calcium EDTA), Pencillamine and Defroxamine.
- Only an introduction will be given of the banned and obsolete drug products.
- While dealing with Pharmacology stress should be laid to the group actions of related drugs and only important differences should be discussed of the individual drugs placed in same group.
- Newly introduced drugs should be included in the syllabus while drugs with no clinical and therapeutic values ought to be excluded from syllabus at any time.
- The prototype drugs in each group from the latest edition of the recommended books.