1. To understand of biological function of human body.
2. To understand central nervous system (CNS) physiology and sensory system.


CLO: 1. Discuss principles, theory and methods of testing central nervous system physiology and sensory system physiology.
CLO: 2. Perform laboratory testing of central nervous system physiology and sensory system physiology.
CLO: 3. Analyze given data, graphs and interpret results.
CLO: 4. Question the reliability and benefits of employing a method over the other contemporary methods used in the clinical testing.


1. Instructions for safe work in Basic Medical Sciences/Pharmacology Laboratory and equipment used.
2. Demonstration of osmotic fragility of red blood cells.
3. Determination of body temperature.
4. Study of deep tendon reflexes.
5. Study of superficial human reflexes.
6. Introduction to cranial nerves and examination of cranial nerve III, IV and VI.
7. Examination of cranial nerve V.
8. Examination of cranial nerve VII.
9. Examination of cranial nerve VIII, IX, X, XI and XII.
10. Recording of compound action potential of a frog nerve.
11. Study of synaptic transmission phenomenon across the neuromuscular junction and muscle twitch.
12. Investigation of taste perceptions.
13. Investigation of smell perceptions.
14. Measurement of distance and near visual acuity.
15. Demonstration of visual field analysis.
16. Investigation of hearing system.