Focus of this course is to develop understanding of how normal body functions are performed and coordinated at various levels, ranging from a cell to a system, and how biological control mechanisms work to maintain normal parameters of a living body. This is meant to provide the basis for the understanding of abnormal function seen in the state of a disease (pathophysiology) and to relate it with mechanism of therapeutic modalities used for treating those diseases.


CLO: 1. Explain physiology of structural components of human organ systems from system to a cell.
CLO: 2. Relate various physiological parameters with their regulatory mechanisms.
CLO: 3. Identify pathophysiological basis of various diseases and sites for pharmacological actions of the drugs.


    • Chemical composition of the body: Atoms, Molecules, Ions, Free Radicals, Polar Molecules, Solutions, Classes of Organic Molecules
    • Cell structure: Microscopic Observation of Cell, Microscopic, Cell Organelles, Cytoskeleton
    • Protein activity and cellular metabolism: Binding Site Characteristics, Regulation of Binding site Characteristics, Chemical Reactions, Enzymes, Regulation of Enzyme-Mediated Reactions, Multi-enzyme metabolic Pathways, ATP, Cellular Energy Transfer, Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Metabolism, Essential Nutrient.
    • Genetic information and Protein Synthesis:Genetic Code, Protein Synthesis, Protein, Degradation, Protein Secretion, Replication and Expression of Genetic Information, Cancer, Genetic Engineering
    • Movement of Molecules across Cell Membranes: Diffusion, Mediated- Transport Systems, Osmosis, Endocytosis and Exocytosis, Epithelial Transport
    • Homeostatic Mechanisms and Cellular Communication: General Characteristics, Components of Homeostatic Control Systems, Intercellular Chemical Messengers, Processes Related to Homeostasis, Receptors, single Transduction Pathways.
    • Neural Control Mechanisms: Structure and Maintenance of Neurons, Functional Classes of Neurons, Glial Cells, Neural Growth and Regeneration, Basic Principles of Electricity, The resting Membrane Potential, Graded Potentials and Action Potentials, Functional Anatomy of synapses, Activation of the Postsynaptic Cell, Synaptic Effectiveness, Neurotransmitters and Neuro-modulators, Neuro-effector communication, Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord Central Nervous System: Brain, Peripheral Nervous System, Blood Supply, Blood-Brain Barrier phenomenon, and Cerebrospinal fluid.
    • The Sensory Systems: Receptors, Neural Pathways in Sensory System, Association Cortex and Perceptual Processing, Primary Sensory Coding, Somatic Sensation, Visio, Hearing, Vestibular System, Chemical Senses.
    • Principles of Hormonal Control Systems: Hormone Structures and Synthesis, Hormone Transport in the Blood, Hormone Metabolism and Excretion, Mechanisms of Hormone Action, Inputs that control Hormone Secretion, Control Systems Involving the Hypothalamus and Pituitary, candidate Hormones, type of Endocrine Disorders.
    • Muscle: Structure, Molecular Mechanisms of Contraction, Mechanics of Single fiber Contraction, Skeletal Muscle Energy Metabolism, Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers, Whole Muscle Contraction, Structure, Contraction and its Control.
    • Control of Body Movement: Motor Control Hierarchy, Local control of Motor Neurons, The Brain Motor Centers and the Descending Pathways they Control, Muscle Tone, Maintenance of Upright Posture and Balance, Walking.
    • Consciousness and Behavior: State of consciousness, conscious Experiences, Motivation and Emotion, Altered State of Consciousness, Learning and Memory, Cerebral Dominance and language Conclusion.

NOTE: Special emphasis should be given on the normal physiological values and their changes during respective pathological conditions. Furthermore, the physiological link will be developed with pathology as well as pharmacology.