## COURSE OBJECTIVES

• To understand fundamentals of fluid mechanics.
• To enhance skills of utilizing fluid mechanics for civil engineering applications.

### COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLO)

CLO: 1. To explain the basic concepts of fluid statics, kinematics and hydrodynamics and to solve the steady flow problems.
CLO: 2. To analyze the forces on immersed bodies, different forms of energy in flowing fluids and to uniform flow in open channel.
CLO: 3. To clarify the basic concepts of the fluid statics, kinematics and hydrodynamics.
CLO: 4. To perform computer aided analysis of pipe networks using software (MS Excel/EPANET)

## COURSE CONTENTS

1. Introduction
• Solids and fluids (liquids and gases)
• Units and dimensions
• Physical properties of fluids; density, specific weight, specific volume, specific gravity, surface tension, compressibility
• Viscosity and its measurement
• Newton’s equation of viscosity
• Hydrostatics
• Kinematics
• Hydrodynamics
• Hydraulics
2. Fluid Statics
• Pressure intensity and pressure head
• Pressure and specific weight relationship
• Absolute and gauge pressure
• Measurement of pressure
• Piezometer, manometer
• Pressure transducers
• Differential manometer and Borden gauge
3. Fluid Kinematics
• Laminar and turbulent flow
• Uniform and non-uniform flow
• Pathline streamlines and stream tubes
• Velocity and discharge
• Control volume
• Equation of continuity for compressible and incompressible fluids
4. Forces on Immersed Bodies
• Forces on submerged planes & curved surfaces and their applications
• Drag and lift forces, buoyancy and floatation
• Equilibrium of floating and submerged bodies
5. Hydrodynamics
• Different forms of energy in a flowing liquid
• Bernoulli’s equation and its application
• Energy line and Hydraulic Gradient Line
• Introduction to density currents, free and forced vortex
• Forces on pressure conduits, reducers and bends, stationary and moving blades
• Torques in rotating machines
6. Flow Measurement
• Orifices and mouthpieces, sharp-crested weirs and notches
• Pitot tube and pitot static tube
• Venturimeter, velocity methods
• Darcy-Weisbach equation for flow in pipes
• General equation for friction
• Velocity profile in circular pipes
• Laminar and turbulent flow in circular pipes, semi empirical theories of turbulence