Organizational Justice a New Theoretical Perspective: A Study from Private Higher Educational Institutions of Pakistan
This study was based on human resource management (HRM) and performance linkages, and reviewed existing available HRM-Performance perspectives to identify an alternate perspective for HRM. The most suitable option in literature was organizational justice (OJ) and its major dimensions. The objective of this study was to identify the missing theories of OJ, which if included would further substantiate OJ and its major dimensions. Census method was used to collect data from faculty members and their respective head of department of private higher educational institutions operated in Pakistan. A 5-point Likert scale was used which provided data from both types of respondents. A total of 966 questionnaires were distributed amongst the faculty members and their respective head of department. Out of 966 questionnaires, 588 successful questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 60 percent. The reliability of measures were evaluated through Cronbach’s alphas; while, the validity were evaluated through expert opinion along with confirmatory factor analysis. One sample t-test and simultaneous equation models (three path mediated model) were used for testing of our eight hypotheses.
The results reflect that the well identified missing theories in existing OJ scales include: external equity, equality, need, due process model, interaction with colleagues, interaction with top management, and upward communication. Further, majority of experts opinion on missing theories (our proposed additions) have appeared on positive side, that is, they were more inclined toward agreed side than disagreed. Moreover, the first five econometric models (4.1-4.5) used for testing of hypotheses, one each for each of the OJ dimension have been significant on the basis of F-value. Additionally, majority of our proposed additions and existing sub-dimensions turn out to be significant, in the first five econometric models. Similarly, the last four econometric models (4.6 4.9) used to test the mediating mechanism of overall justice and employees’ job satisfaction have also been found significant on the basis of F-value. The mediated effect of overall justice, and employees’ job satisfaction were also found statistically significant. Finally, the last model (4.13) used to test the moderating affect of organizational size was statistically significant; however, only two variables, that is, overall justice and rater procedural justice provide significant results. On the basis of results, it is concluded that there exist considerable theoretical gaps and misconceptions in existing OJ scales and literature. Further, presently missing theories (external equity, equality, downward communication, etc.), should be added to the existing dimensions of OJ to complete the concept. Moreover, OJ dimensions as measured through their sub-dimensions contributes towards overall OJ, which in turn lead to employees’ job satisfaction, which further lead to employees behavior.