• Have the ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering to understand the measurement techniques and equipment used in soil mechanics and foundation engineering.
• To enable students to understand theory and practice of soil mechanics.
• To enable students to solve soil related problems.
• To develop skills to use modern soil mechanics equipment.


CLO: 1. to explain fundamental engineering concepts of soil behavior and soil classification and to use them for proposing solutions to soil problems.
CLO: 2. to analyze soil related problems correlated to civil engineering domain using principles of soil mechanics.
CLO: 3. to discuss and clarify concepts of soil mechanics related to civil engineering domain for simple situations.
CLO: 4. to measure seepage quantity using modern tools/Software (Phase 2.0 or Seep W)


  1. Introduction
    • Applications of soil mechanics in engineering practice
    • Introduction to soil and its types
    • Formation of soils
  2. Physical &Index Properties of Soil
    • Weight-volume relationships
    • Particle Size, shape & Texture of soil& their effect on engineering properties
    • Atterberg Limits
    • Structure of soil (Mineralogy of Soil)
    • Diffused Double Layer
  3. Engineering Classification of Soil
    • Importance of classification of soil
    • Mechanical Analysis of Soils
    • Classification systems
      • AASHTO Classification System
      • USCS Classification System
    • Field Identification Tests (Dry Strength test, Dilatency Test, Dispersion Test and Plasticity Test)
  4. Soil Exploration
    • Methods of exploration & their importance
      • Probing
      • Test Trenches & Pits
      • Boring (Auger, Wash & Percussion) and drilling
      • Geo-Physical Methods
      • Insitu Tests
    • Planning Exploration Program
    • Types of soil samples, samplers & sampling
    • Sources of Sample Disturbance
    • Geo-Technical Investigation Report
  5. Permeability & Seepage in Soils
    • Bernoulli’s Equation
    • Darcy’s law
    • Factors affecting permeability
    • Laboratory and field determination of permeability
    • Empirical Correlations for determination of permeability
    • Introduction to equipotential lines and Flow nets
    • Estimation of seepage quantity and gradients
    • Escape & Critical Gradient
    • Seepage Control Measures
    • Filter Design
    • Introduction to software (RocScience)
  6. Soil Compaction
    • Mechanism, moisture density relationship
    • Compaction standards
    • Factors affecting compaction
    • Field compaction equipment
    • Relative density and Relative Compaction
    • Field control and measurement of in-situ density
  7. Stress Distributions and Elastic Settlement
    • Vertical Pressure below a Concentrated Load
    • Westergaard Equation
    • Boussinesq Equation
    • Vertical Pressure below a loaded Surface Area (uniform load)
    • Approximate Method
    • Method Based on Elastic Theory
    • Embankment Loading
    • Uniform Load on a Rectangular Area
  8. Earth Pressures
    • Definition, pressure at rest, active and passive earth pressures
    • Coulomb’s and Rankine’s theories
    • Earth pressure diagrams for different loading configurations